In the past decade, the problem of mass incarceration has gotten increased attention and thought. But in his new book, Mass Supervision, Vincent Schiraldi argues that in those conversations, people often neglect to think about probation and parole — two of the biggest feeders to the U.S.’s prison population. These systems surveil close to four million Americans, which Schiraldi says is both a huge waste of resources and a massive human rights violation. On this episode, we’re talking to Schiraldi about how probation and parole came to be, why they’re no longer working as they were once supposed to, and why he thinks they might need to be done away with entirely. Listen to the podcast here or look code Switch in your podcast player of choice – this is the September 27, 2023 episode)